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|Iberian Peninsula Jewish/Moorish ancestry||07-12-2008, 10:03|
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Gene Test Shows Spain’s Jewish and Muslim Mix
By NICHOLAS WADE (The New York Times)
Published: December 4, 2008
The genetic signatures of people in Spain and Portugal provide new and explicit evidence of the mass conversions of Sephardic Jews and Muslims to Catholicism in the 15th and 16th centuries after Christian armies wrested Spain back from Muslim control, a team of geneticists reports.
Twenty percent of the population of the Iberian Peninsula has Sephardic Jewish ancestry and 11 percent have DNA reflecting Moorish ancestors, the geneticists have found. Historians have debated how many Jews converted and how many chose exile. “One wing grossly underestimates the number of conversions,” said Jane S. Gerber, an expert on Sephardic history at the City University of New York.
The finding bears on two different views of Spanish history, said Jonathan S. Ray, a professor of Jewish studies at Georgetown University. One, proposed by the 20th-century historian Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz, holds that Spanish civilization is Catholic and other influences are foreign; the other sees Spain as having been enriched by drawing from all three of its historical cultures, Catholic, Jewish and Muslim.
The study, based on an analysis of Y chromosomes, was conducted by biologists led by Mark A. Jobling of the University of Leicester in England and Francesc Calafell of the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona. They developed a Y chromosome signature for Sephardic men by studying Sephardic Jewish communities in places where Jews migrated after being expelled from Spain in 1492 to 1496. They also characterized the Y chromosomes of the Arab and Berber army that invaded Spain in A.D. 711 from data on people living in Morocco and Western Sahara.
After a period of forbearance under the Arab Umayyad dynasty, Spain entered a period of religious intolerance, with its Muslim Berber dynasties forcing Christians and Jews to convert to Islam, and the victorious Christians then expelling Jews and Muslims or forcing them to convert. The new genetic study, reported online on Thursday in the American Journal of Human Genetics, indicates there was a high level of conversion among Jews.
Because most of the Y chromosome remains unchanged from father to son, the proportions of Sephardic and Moorish ancestry detected in the present population are probably the same as those just after the 1492 expulsions. A high proportion of people with Sephardic ancestry was to be expected, Dr. Ray said. “Jews formed a very large part of the urban population up until the great conversions,” he said.
Dr. Ray raised the question of what the DNA evidence might mean personally. “If four generations on I have no knowledge of my genetic past, how does that affect my understanding of my own religious association?”
The issue is one that has confronted Dr. Calafell, an author of the study. His own Y chromosome may be of Sephardic ancestry — the test is not definitive for individuals — and his surname is from a town in Catalonia; Jews undergoing conversion often took surnames from place names. But he does not regard his Y chromosome as a strong link to the Sephardic heritage. Assuming no in-breeding, he would have had more than one million living ancestors in A.D. 1500. “My full ancestry is made of many different individuals, and my Y chromosome tells me just about one of them,” he said.
|RE: Iberian Peninsula Jewish/Moorish ancestry||08-12-2008, 11:14|
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O estudo foi publicado em livro?
|RE: Iberian Peninsula Jewish/Moorish ancestry||08-12-2008, 12:27|
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Ver igualmente o artigo " A nossa grande mestiçagem" publicado no Público de sexta-feira, dia 2 de Dezembro de 2008, que se baseia no estudo publicado no American Journal of Human Genetis sobre "O Legado genético da diversidade religiosa e da intolerancia: linhagens paternas dos cristãos, judeus e muçulmanos na Peninsula Iberica".
Quem foi um dos membros da equipa que fez este estudo foi o Doutor João Lavinha responsavel pelo Departamento de Genética do Instituto de Saúde Ricardo Jorge, em Lisboa.
"The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula"
Autores : Susan M. Adams , Elena Bosch , Patricia L. Balaresque , Stéphane J. Ballereau , Andrew C. Lee , Eduardo Arroyo , Ana M. López-Parra , Mercedes Aler , Marina S. Gisbert Grifo , Maria Brion , Angel Carracedo , João Lavinha , Begoña Martínez-Jarreta , Lluis Quintana-Murci , Antònia Picornell , Misericordia Ramon , Karl Skorecki , Doron M. Behar , Francesc Calafell and Mark A. Jobling
Abstract: Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristicsNorth African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movementmore marked in some regions than in othersplus the effects of genetic drift."
ricardo Charters d'Azevedo
|Portuguese unique haplotype; A26-B38-DR13||28-12-2008, 14:07|
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Os portugueses têm dois genes específicos, A25-BlS-DR2, só foi encontrado nos portugueses entre os europeus, apesar de existir também no Brasil e na América do Norte.
O outro gene, e o mais particular tem o nome de A26-B38-DR13.
Os nossos dois genes que marcam a diferença - também marcada pela ausência de genes comuns aos outros povos, ibéricos e argelinos - fazem com que os portugueses sejam uma população relativamente distinta entre os ibéricos.
O porquê das nossas diferenças é simples: não nos deixamos misturar com o norte-africanos do Paleolítico, não temos o gene do mediterrâneo, o que prova isolamento, e temos dois genes específicos, sendo que um deles não foi encontrado em mais nenhum lugar no Mundo.
Ver igualmente em: National Center for Biotechnology Information U.S. National & Library of Medicine
(Portuguese people have also maintained a certain degree of cultural and ethnic-specific characteristics since ancient times)
(Portuguese and Basques do not show the Mediterranean A33-B14-DR1 haplotype, suggesting a lower admixture with Mediterraneans)
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